Over the past few months, there’s been a couple of interesting events in the realm of digital preservation. The first was the publication of the new UNESCO digital preservation guidelines – PERSIST (although UNESCO uses the term sustainability rather than preservation) . The second was the updated Digital Preservation Coalition Handbook.
PERSIST (Platform to enhance the sustainability of the information society transglobally) looks at guidelines for selecting digital materials – it’s necessarily rather broad and full of good intentions and motherhood statements. The guidelines look at national institutions, such as archives, museums and libraries, and suggests that where legislation exists regarding the deposit of materials such legislation should be broadened, if required, to include digital content. Both national and international bodies should be engaged in setting standards for the collection and maintenance of these materials. Copyright and digital rights management are briefly addressed in the next section on the legislative environment.
The next three sections look at libraries, archives and museum collections from the ‘think global: act local’ perpective. The first section, Thinking globally, suggests that libraries, faced with the ubiquity of social media, websites and internet content, will need to manage their legal deposit and selection criteria for ephemera carefully. It also suggests that libraries may need to focus on user requirements for maintaining content, rather than continually acquiring new content with view to preservation. Museums and galleries are flagged as needing to think about metadata for digital and digitised content and also for records about the collection. Archives, like libraries, face problems with shifting formats and systems. Libraries have the luxury of many copies, but archives may lose content that is not ‘born archival’ but which garners significance over time, simply because the formats in which the items are created are in themselves, ephemeral. Although specific issues are identified for each institutional type, the guidelines stress that many of these concerns cross collection boundaries.
The second section, Act locally, provides a range of selection techniques and criteria which are probably already familiar to institutions looking at collection policies and processes: comprehensive collections, focused on a region, time or person/organisation; representative sampling; criteria based selection – format, topic, and so on. It also suggests that there can be delayed appraisal in some circumstances: collect now, select later.
In addition, the guidelines provide a simple decision tree (sadly, not illustrated) which suggests institutions consider the following:
- Legislative framework
Possibly of more interest and more utility are the appendices – the first looks at metadata for digital preservation, and manages to do so without using the PREMIS acronym. Three types of metadata are identified as useful for digital preservation; structural, descriptive and administrative. The second appendix provides useful terms and definitions.
The Digital Preservation Coalition Handbook is an online document (which can also be saved and printed as pdf), designed for managers and executives who are either new to the concepts of digital preservation or, through the handbook and other learning, feel that they have a good grasp of the essentials but are by no means experts. Each section states the level of experience the section is aimed at, and provides some clear, simple discussions before going on to more nuts and bolts information like choosing providers, identifying formats, working through digitisation processes and decisions and more. This is a far more detail and practical work than the Guidelines, but the two work well together.
Use the Guidelines to promote the importance of digital management and then follow up with the Handbook.